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/****************************************************************************

 Copyright (C) 2002-2014 Gilles Debunne. All rights reserved.

 This file is part of the QGLViewer library version 2.6.1.

 http://www.libqglviewer.com - contact@libqglviewer.com

 This file may be used under the terms of the GNU General Public License 
 versions 2.0 or 3.0 as published by the Free Software Foundation and
 appearing in the LICENSE file included in the packaging of this file.
 In addition, as a special exception, Gilles Debunne gives you certain 
 additional rights, described in the file GPL_EXCEPTION in this package.

 libQGLViewer uses dual licensing. Commercial/proprietary software must
 purchase a libQGLViewer Commercial License.

 This file is provided AS IS with NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, INCLUDING THE
 WARRANTY OF DESIGN, MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

*****************************************************************************/

#ifndef QGLVIEWER_CAMERA_H
#define QGLVIEWER_CAMERA_H

#include "keyFrameInterpolator.h"
class QGLViewer;

namespace qglviewer {

class ManipulatedCameraFrame;

/*! \brief A perspective or orthographic camera.
  \class Camera camera.h QGLViewer/camera.h

  A Camera defines some intrinsic parameters (fieldOfView(), position(), viewDirection(),
  upVector()...) and useful positioning tools that ease its placement (showEntireScene(),
  fitSphere(), lookAt()...). It exports its associated OpenGL projection and modelview matrices and
  can interactively be modified using the mouse.

  <h3>Mouse manipulation</h3>

  The position() and orientation() of the Camera are defined by a ManipulatedCameraFrame (retrieved
  using frame()). These methods are just convenient wrappers to the equivalent Frame methods. This
  also means that the Camera frame() can be attached to a Frame::referenceFrame() which enables
  complex Camera setups.

  Different displacements can be performed using the mouse. The list of possible actions is defined
  by the QGLViewer::MouseAction enum. Use QGLViewer::setMouseBinding() to attach a specific action
  to an arbitrary mouse button-state key binding. These actions are detailed in the <a
  href="../mouse.html">mouse page</a>.

  The default button binding are: QGLViewer::ROTATE (left), QGLViewer::ZOOM (middle) and
  QGLViewer::TRANSLATE (right). With this configuration, the Camera \e observes a scene and rotates
  around its pivotPoint(). You can switch between this mode and a fly mode using the
  QGLViewer::CAMERA_MODE (see QGLViewer::toggleCameraMode()) keyboard shortcut (default is 'Space').

  <h3>Other functionalities</h3>

  The type() of the Camera can be Camera::ORTHOGRAPHIC or Camera::PERSPECTIVE (see Type()).
  fieldOfView() is meaningless with Camera::ORTHOGRAPHIC.

  The near and far planes of the Camera are fitted to the scene and determined from
  QGLViewer::sceneRadius(), QGLViewer::sceneCenter() and zClippingCoefficient() by the zNear() and
  zFar() methods. Reasonable values on the scene extends hence have to be provided to the QGLViewer
  in order for the Camera to correctly display the scene. High level positioning methods also use
  this information (showEntireScene(), centerScene()...).

  A Camera holds KeyFrameInterpolator that can be used to save Camera positions and paths. You can
  interactively addKeyFrameToPath() to a given path using the default \c Alt+F[1-12] shortcuts. Use
  playPath() to make the Camera follow the path (default shortcut is F[1-12]). See the <a
  href="../keyboard.html">keyboard page</a> for details on key customization.

  Use cameraCoordinatesOf() and worldCoordinatesOf() to convert to and from the Camera frame()
  coordinate system. projectedCoordinatesOf() and unprojectedCoordinatesOf() will convert from
  screen to 3D coordinates. convertClickToLine() is very useful for analytical object selection.

  Stereo display is possible on machines with quad buffer capabilities (with Camera::PERSPECTIVE
  type() only). Test the <a href="../examples/stereoViewer.html">stereoViewer example</a> to check.

  A Camera can also be used outside of a QGLViewer or even without OpenGL for its coordinate system
  conversion capabilities. Note however that some of them explicitly rely on the presence of a
  Z-buffer. \nosubgrouping */
class QGLVIEWER_EXPORT Camera : public QObject
{
#ifndef DOXYGEN
	friend class ::QGLViewer;
#endif

	Q_OBJECT

public:
	Camera();
	virtual ~Camera();

	Camera(const Camera& camera);
	Camera& operator=(const Camera& camera);


	/*! Enumerates the two possible types of Camera.

	See type() and setType(). This type mainly defines different Camera projection matrix (see
	loadProjectionMatrix()). Many other methods (pointUnderPixel(), convertClickToLine(),
	projectedCoordinatesOf(), pixelGLRatio()...) are affected by this Type. */
	enum Type { PERSPECTIVE, ORTHOGRAPHIC };

	/*! @name Position and orientation */
	//@{
public:
	Vec position() const;
	Vec upVector() const;
	Vec viewDirection() const;
	Vec rightVector() const;
	Quaternion orientation() const;

	void setFromModelViewMatrix(const GLdouble* const modelViewMatrix);
	void setFromProjectionMatrix(const qreal matrix[12]);

public Q_SLOTS:
	void setPosition(const Vec& pos);
	void setOrientation(const Quaternion& q);
	void setOrientation(qreal theta, qreal phi);
	void setUpVector(const Vec& up, bool noMove=true);
	void setViewDirection(const Vec& direction);
	//@}


	/*! @name Positioning tools */
	//@{
public Q_SLOTS:
	void lookAt(const Vec& target);
	void showEntireScene();
	void fitSphere(const Vec& center, qreal radius);
	void fitBoundingBox(const Vec& min, const Vec& max);
	void fitScreenRegion(const QRect& rectangle);
	void centerScene();
	void interpolateToZoomOnPixel(const QPoint& pixel);
	void interpolateToFitScene();
	void interpolateTo(const Frame& fr, qreal duration);
	//@}


	/*! @name Frustum */
	//@{
public:
	/*! Returns the Camera::Type of the Camera.

	Set by setType(). Mainly used by loadProjectionMatrix().

	A Camera::PERSPECTIVE Camera uses a classical projection mainly defined by its fieldOfView().

	With a Camera::ORTHOGRAPHIC type(), the fieldOfView() is meaningless and the width and height of
	the Camera frustum are inferred from the distance to the pivotPoint() using
	getOrthoWidthHeight().

	Both types use zNear() and zFar() (to define their clipping planes) and aspectRatio() (for
	frustum shape). */
	Type type() const { return type_; }

	/*! Returns the vertical field of view of the Camera (in radians).

	Value is set using setFieldOfView(). Default value is pi/4 radians. This value is meaningless if
	the Camera type() is Camera::ORTHOGRAPHIC.

	The field of view corresponds the one used in \c gluPerspective (see manual). It sets the Y
	(vertical) aperture of the Camera. The X (horizontal) angle is inferred from the window aspect
	ratio (see aspectRatio() and horizontalFieldOfView()).

	Use setFOVToFitScene() to adapt the fieldOfView() to a given scene. */
	qreal fieldOfView() const { return fieldOfView_; }

	/*! Returns the horizontal field of view of the Camera (in radians).

	Value is set using setHorizontalFieldOfView() or setFieldOfView(). These values
	are always linked by:
	\code
	horizontalFieldOfView() = 2.0 * atan ( tan(fieldOfView()/2.0) * aspectRatio() ).
	\endcode */
	qreal horizontalFieldOfView() const { return 2.0 * atan ( tan(fieldOfView()/2.0) * aspectRatio() ); }

	/*! Returns the Camera aspect ratio defined by screenWidth() / screenHeight().

	When the Camera is attached to a QGLViewer, these values and hence the aspectRatio() are
	automatically fitted to the viewer's window aspect ratio using setScreenWidthAndHeight(). */
	qreal aspectRatio() const { return screenWidth_ / static_cast<qreal>(screenHeight_); }
	/*! Returns the width (in pixels) of the Camera screen.

	Set using setScreenWidthAndHeight(). This value is automatically fitted to the QGLViewer's
	window dimensions when the Camera is attached to a QGLViewer. See also QGLWidget::width() */
	int screenWidth() const { return screenWidth_; }
	/*! Returns the height (in pixels) of the Camera screen.

	Set using setScreenWidthAndHeight(). This value is automatically fitted to the QGLViewer's
	window dimensions when the Camera is attached to a QGLViewer. See also QGLWidget::height() */
	int screenHeight() const { return screenHeight_; }
	void getViewport(GLint viewport[4]) const;
	qreal pixelGLRatio(const Vec& position) const;

	/*! Returns the coefficient which is used to set zNear() when the Camera is inside the sphere
	defined by sceneCenter() and zClippingCoefficient() * sceneRadius().

	In that case, the zNear() value is set to zNearCoefficient() * zClippingCoefficient() *
	sceneRadius(). See the zNear() documentation for details.

	Default value is 0.005, which is appropriate for most applications. In case you need a high
	dynamic ZBuffer precision, you can increase this value (~0.1). A lower value will prevent
	clipping of very close objects at the expense of a worst Z precision.

	Only meaningful when Camera type is Camera::PERSPECTIVE. */
	qreal zNearCoefficient() const { return zNearCoef_; }
	/*! Returns the coefficient used to position the near and far clipping planes.

	The near (resp. far) clipping plane is positioned at a distance equal to zClippingCoefficient() *
	sceneRadius() in front of (resp. behind) the sceneCenter(). This garantees an optimal use of
	the z-buffer range and minimizes aliasing. See the zNear() and zFar() documentations.

	Default value is square root of 3.0 (so that a cube of size sceneRadius() is not clipped).

	However, since the sceneRadius() is used for other purposes (see showEntireScene(), flySpeed(),
	...) and you may want to change this value to define more precisely the location of the clipping
	planes. See also zNearCoefficient().

	For a total control on clipping planes' positions, an other option is to overload the zNear()
	and zFar() methods. See the <a href="../examples/standardCamera.html">standardCamera example</a>.

	\attention When QGLViewer::cameraPathAreEdited(), this value is set to 5.0 so that the Camera
	paths are not clipped. The previous zClippingCoefficient() value is restored back when you leave
	this mode. */
	qreal zClippingCoefficient() const { return zClippingCoef_; }

	virtual qreal zNear() const;
	virtual qreal zFar()  const;
	virtual void getOrthoWidthHeight(GLdouble& halfWidth, GLdouble& halfHeight) const;
	void getFrustumPlanesCoefficients(GLdouble coef[6][4]) const;

public Q_SLOTS:
	void setType(Type type);

	void setFieldOfView(qreal fov);

	/*! Sets the horizontalFieldOfView() of the Camera (in radians).

	horizontalFieldOfView() and fieldOfView() are linked by the aspectRatio(). This method actually
	calls setFieldOfView(( 2.0 * atan (tan(hfov / 2.0) / aspectRatio()) )) so that a call to
	horizontalFieldOfView() returns the expected value. */
	void setHorizontalFieldOfView(qreal hfov) { setFieldOfView( 2.0 * atan (tan(hfov / 2.0) / aspectRatio()) ); }

	void setFOVToFitScene();

	/*! Defines the Camera aspectRatio().

	This value is actually inferred from the screenWidth() / screenHeight() ratio. You should use
	setScreenWidthAndHeight() instead.

	This method might however be convenient when the Camera is not associated with a QGLViewer. It
	actually sets the screenHeight() to 100 and the screenWidth() accordingly. See also
	setFOVToFitScene().

	\note If you absolutely need an aspectRatio() that does not correspond to your viewer's window
	dimensions, overload loadProjectionMatrix() or multiply the created GL_PROJECTION matrix by a
	scaled diagonal matrix in your QGLViewer::draw() method. */
	void setAspectRatio(qreal aspect) { setScreenWidthAndHeight(int(100.0*aspect), 100); }

	void setScreenWidthAndHeight(int width, int height);
	/*! Sets the zNearCoefficient() value. */
	void setZNearCoefficient(qreal coef) { zNearCoef_ = coef; projectionMatrixIsUpToDate_ = false; }
	/*! Sets the zClippingCoefficient() value. */
	void setZClippingCoefficient(qreal coef) { zClippingCoef_ = coef; projectionMatrixIsUpToDate_ = false; }
	//@}


	/*! @name Scene radius and center */
	//@{
public:
	/*! Returns the radius of the scene observed by the Camera.

	You need to provide such an approximation of the scene dimensions so that the Camera can adapt
	its zNear() and zFar() values. See the sceneCenter() documentation.

	See also setSceneBoundingBox().

	Note that QGLViewer::sceneRadius() (resp. QGLViewer::setSceneRadius()) simply call this method
	(resp. setSceneRadius()) on its associated QGLViewer::camera(). */
	qreal sceneRadius() const { return sceneRadius_; }

	/*! Returns the position of the scene center, defined in the world coordinate system.

	The scene observed by the Camera should be roughly centered on this position, and included in a
	sceneRadius() sphere. This approximate description of the scene permits a zNear() and zFar()
	clipping planes definition, and allows convenient positioning methods such as showEntireScene().

	Default value is (0,0,0) (world origin). Use setSceneCenter() to change it. See also
	setSceneBoundingBox().

	Note that QGLViewer::sceneCenter() (resp. QGLViewer::setSceneCenter()) simply calls this method
	(resp. setSceneCenter()) on its associated QGLViewer::camera(). */
	Vec sceneCenter() const { return sceneCenter_; }
	qreal distanceToSceneCenter() const;

public Q_SLOTS:
	void setSceneRadius(qreal radius);
	void setSceneCenter(const Vec& center);
	bool setSceneCenterFromPixel(const QPoint& pixel);
	void setSceneBoundingBox(const Vec& min, const Vec& max);
	//@}


	/*! @name Pivot Point */
	//@{
public Q_SLOTS:
	void setPivotPoint(const Vec& point);
	bool setPivotPointFromPixel(const QPoint& pixel);

public:
	Vec pivotPoint() const;

#ifndef DOXYGEN
public Q_SLOTS:
	void setRevolveAroundPoint(const Vec& point);
	bool setRevolveAroundPointFromPixel(const QPoint& pixel);
public:
	Vec revolveAroundPoint() const;
#endif
	//@}


	/*! @name Associated frame */
	//@{
public:
	/*! Returns the ManipulatedCameraFrame attached to the Camera.

	This ManipulatedCameraFrame defines its position() and orientation() and can translate mouse
	events into Camera displacement. Set using setFrame(). */
	ManipulatedCameraFrame* frame() const { return frame_; }
public Q_SLOTS:
	void setFrame(ManipulatedCameraFrame* const mcf);
	//@}


	/*! @name KeyFramed paths */
	//@{
public:
	KeyFrameInterpolator* keyFrameInterpolator(unsigned int i) const;

public Q_SLOTS:
	void setKeyFrameInterpolator(unsigned int i, KeyFrameInterpolator* const kfi);

	virtual void addKeyFrameToPath(unsigned int i);
	virtual void playPath(unsigned int i);
	virtual void deletePath(unsigned int i);
	virtual void resetPath(unsigned int i);
	virtual void drawAllPaths();
	//@}


	/*! @name OpenGL matrices */
	//@{
public:
	virtual void loadProjectionMatrix(bool reset=true) const;
	virtual void loadModelViewMatrix(bool reset=true) const;
	void computeProjectionMatrix() const;
	void computeModelViewMatrix() const;

	virtual void loadProjectionMatrixStereo(bool leftBuffer=true) const;
	virtual void loadModelViewMatrixStereo(bool leftBuffer=true) const;

	void getProjectionMatrix(GLfloat m[16]) const;
	void getProjectionMatrix(GLdouble m[16]) const;

	void getModelViewMatrix(GLfloat m[16]) const;
	void getModelViewMatrix(GLdouble m[16]) const;

	void getModelViewProjectionMatrix(GLfloat m[16]) const;
	void getModelViewProjectionMatrix(GLdouble m[16]) const;
	//@}


	/*! @name Drawing */
	//@{
#ifndef DOXYGEN
	static void drawCamera(qreal scale=1.0, qreal aspectRatio=1.33, qreal fieldOfView=qreal(M_PI)/4.0);
#endif
	virtual void draw(bool drawFarPlane=true, qreal scale=1.0) const;
	//@}


	/*! @name World to Camera coordinate systems conversions */
	//@{
public:
	Vec cameraCoordinatesOf(const Vec& src) const;
	Vec worldCoordinatesOf(const Vec& src) const;
	void getCameraCoordinatesOf(const qreal src[3], qreal res[3]) const;
	void getWorldCoordinatesOf(const qreal src[3], qreal res[3]) const;
	//@}


	/*! @name 2D screen to 3D world coordinate systems conversions */
	//@{
public:
	Vec projectedCoordinatesOf(const Vec& src, const Frame* frame=NULL) const;
	Vec unprojectedCoordinatesOf(const Vec& src, const Frame* frame=NULL) const;
	void getProjectedCoordinatesOf(const qreal src[3], qreal res[3], const Frame* frame=NULL) const;
	void getUnprojectedCoordinatesOf(const qreal src[3], qreal res[3], const Frame* frame=NULL) const;
	void convertClickToLine(const QPoint& pixel, Vec& orig, Vec& dir) const;
	Vec pointUnderPixel(const QPoint& pixel, bool& found) const;
	//@}


	/*! @name Fly speed */
	//@{
public:
	qreal flySpeed() const;
public Q_SLOTS:
	void setFlySpeed(qreal speed);
	//@}


	/*! @name Stereo parameters */
	//@{
public:
	/*! Returns the user's inter-ocular distance (in meters). Default value is 0.062m, which fits most people.

	loadProjectionMatrixStereo() uses this value to define the Camera offset and frustum. See
	setIODistance(). */
	qreal IODistance() const { return IODistance_; }

	/*! Returns the physical distance between the user's eyes and the screen (in meters).

	physicalDistanceToScreen() and focusDistance() represent the same distance. The former is
	expressed in physical real world units, while the latter is expressed in OpenGL virtual world
	units.

	This is a helper function. It simply returns physicalScreenWidth() / 2.0 / tan(horizontalFieldOfView() / 2.0); */
	qreal physicalDistanceToScreen() const { return physicalScreenWidth() / 2.0 / tan(horizontalFieldOfView() / 2.0); }

	/*! Returns the physical screen width, in meters. Default value is 0.5m (average monitor width).

	Used for stereo display only (see loadModelViewMatrixStereo() and loadProjectionMatrixStereo()).
	Set using setPhysicalScreenWidth(). */
	qreal physicalScreenWidth() const { return physicalScreenWidth_; }

	/*! Returns the focus distance used by stereo display, expressed in OpenGL units.

	This is the distance in the virtual world between the Camera and the plane where the horizontal
	stereo parallax is null (the stereo left and right cameras' lines of sigth cross at this distance).

	This distance is the virtual world equivalent of the real-world physicalDistanceToScreen().

	\attention This value is modified by QGLViewer::setSceneRadius(), setSceneRadius() and
	setFieldOfView(). When one of these values is modified, focusDistance() is set to sceneRadius()
	/ tan(fieldOfView()/2), which provides good results. */
	qreal focusDistance() const { return focusDistance_; }
public Q_SLOTS:
	/*! Sets the IODistance(). */
	void setIODistance(qreal distance) { IODistance_ = distance; }

#ifndef DOXYGEN
	/*! This method is deprecated. Use setPhysicalScreenWidth() instead. */
	void setPhysicalDistanceToScreen(qreal distance) { Q_UNUSED(distance); qWarning("setPhysicalDistanceToScreen is deprecated, use setPhysicalScreenWidth instead"); }
#endif

	/*! Sets the physical screen (monitor or projected wall) width (in meters). */
	void setPhysicalScreenWidth(qreal width) { physicalScreenWidth_ = width; }

	/*! Sets the focusDistance(), in OpenGL scene units. */
	void setFocusDistance(qreal distance) { focusDistance_ = distance; }
	//@}


	/*! @name XML representation */
	//@{
public:
	virtual QDomElement domElement(const QString& name, QDomDocument& document) const;
public Q_SLOTS:
	virtual void initFromDOMElement(const QDomElement& element);
	//@}


private Q_SLOTS:
	void onFrameModified();

private:
	// F r a m e
	ManipulatedCameraFrame* frame_;

	// C a m e r a   p a r a m e t e r s
	int screenWidth_, screenHeight_;  // size of the window, in pixels
	qreal fieldOfView_; // in radians
	Vec sceneCenter_;
	qreal sceneRadius_; // OpenGL units
	qreal zNearCoef_;
	qreal zClippingCoef_;
	qreal orthoCoef_;
	Type type_; // PERSPECTIVE or ORTHOGRAPHIC
	mutable GLdouble modelViewMatrix_[16]; // Buffered model view matrix.
	mutable bool modelViewMatrixIsUpToDate_;
	mutable GLdouble projectionMatrix_[16]; // Buffered projection matrix.
	mutable bool projectionMatrixIsUpToDate_;

	// S t e r e o   p a r a m e t e r s
	qreal IODistance_;		     // inter-ocular distance, in meters
	qreal focusDistance_;	     // in scene units
	qreal physicalScreenWidth_;	     // in meters

	// P o i n t s   o f   V i e w s   a n d   K e y F r a m e s
	QMap<unsigned int, KeyFrameInterpolator*> kfi_;
	KeyFrameInterpolator* interpolationKfi_;
};

} // namespace qglviewer

#endif // QGLVIEWER_CAMERA_H